Distributed Operating System:-

It is a model where distributed applications are running on multiple computers linked by communications. A distributed operating system is an extension of the network operating system that supports higher levels of communication and integration of the machines on the network.

This system looks to its users like an ordinary centralized operating system but runs on multiple, independent central processing units (CPUs).


These systems are referred as loosely coupled systems where each processor has its own local memory and processors communicate with one another through various communication lines, such as high speed buses or telephone lines. By loosely coupled systems, we mean that such computers possess no hardware connections at the CPU – memory bus level, but are connected by external interfaces that run under the control of software.

Parallel operating systems :-

Parallel operating systems are used to interface multiple networked computers to complete tasks in parallel. The architecture of the software is often a UNIX-based platform, which allows it to coordinate distributed loads between multiple computers in a network. Parallel operating systems are able to use software to manage all of the different resources of the computers running in parallel, such as memory, caches, storage space, and processing power. Parallel operating systems also allow a user to directly interface with all of the computers in the network.

A parallel operating system works by dividing sets of calculations into smaller parts and distributing them between the machines on a network. To facilitate communication between the processor cores and memory arrays, routing software has to either share its memory by assigning the same address space to all of the networked computers, or distribute its memory by assigning a different address space to each processing core. Sharing memory allows the operating system to run very quickly, but it is usually not as powerful. When using distributed shared memory, processors have access to both their own local memory and the memory of other processors; this distribution may slow the operating system, but it is often more flexible and efficient.

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